Women Psychoanalysts in Great Britain

Psychoanalytikerinnen. Biografisches Lexikon

Women Psychoanalysts in Great Britain


Enid Balint
Mary Barkas
Ivy Bennett (Australia)
Esther Bick
Augusta Bonnard
Marjorie Brierley
Marion Burgner
Mary Chadwick
Rose Edgcumbe
Elizabeth Foulkes
Liselotte Frankl
Marjorie Franklin
Anna Freud (Austria)
Kate Friedländer
Iseult Grant Duff
Nicena Battiscombe Gunn
Victoria Hamilton
Martha Harris
Lisbeth Hearst
Paula Heimann
Ilse Hellmann
Ethilda Budgett Meakin Herford
Janet Hopkins
Susan Isaacs
Betty Joseph
Hansi Kennedy
Pearl King
Melanie Klein
Barbara Lantos
Hilde Lewinsky
Margaret I. Little
Barbara Low
Hilde Maas (Germany)
Julia Mannheim
Isabel Menzies Lyth
Merrell Middlemore
Marion Milner
Juliet Mitchell
Adele Mittwoch
Lois Munro
Jessie Murray
Edna Oakeshott
Edna O'Shaughnessy
Grace W. Pailthorpe
Sylvia Payne
Irma Brenman Pick
Dinora Pines
Ruth Riesenberg-Malcolm
Joan Riviere
Anne-Marie Sandler
Melitta Schmideberg
Nina Searl
Hanna Segal
Ilse Seglow
Ella Freeman Sharpe
Elizabeth Bott Spillius
Karin Stephen
Alix Strachey
Margret Tönnesmann
Julia Turner
Frances Tustin
Clare Winnicott
Elizabeth Zetzel (USA)

The first practical project of the Planned Environmental Therapy, the Hawkspur camp for maladjusted men, was set up in 1936 by Marjorie Franklin and her colleague David Wills, it was followed by a camp for maladjusted boys in the 1940s. Another project was the Children's Social Adjustment (CSA), which also followed the PET principles. In 1966 Franklin founded the Planned Environmental Therapy Trust (PETT) to promote research, discussion and training regarding the PET approach.

When Edward Glover, whom she strongly supported, resigned from the BPAS in 1944, Kate Friedländer withdrew as well. She died at the early age of 46 of lung cancer.

Susan Isaacs' numerous clinical and theoretical contributions were collected and reprinted in the anthology Childhood and After. She died of cancer in 1948.

Melanie Klein died in 1960 - unreconciled with her daughter Melitta - subsequent to a successful operation for colon cancer, of complications resulting from a broken hip.

In addition to her activities at the Psychoanalytic Institute, which Barbara Low served as its librarian for several years, she was a co-director of Imago Publishing Company and a lecturer and therapist at the Institute for the Study and Treatment of Delinquency. During her last years she retired from public life and lived with her older sister Florence, who also remained unmarried, in Hampstead Garden Suburb.

Julia and Karl Mannheim emigrated via Holland to England. In London Julia Mannheim continued her psychoanalytic training and became a member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1944. In addition to her private praxis as a psychoanalyst and her teaching activity in Anna Freud's Child-Therapy Course, she devoted herself after her husband's death to the editing of his writings. Her promising membership paper on the case of a female drug addict was destined to be her only analytical publication, when she died at the age of 60.

Marion Milner was a member of the Imago Society, founded in 1954 to explore the extension of psychoanalysis to art and other non-clinical matters. Since the late 1970s she was an Honorary President of the British Association of Art Therapists

In 1940 Pailthorpe and Mednikoff left England for New York and moved to Vancouver, Canada, in 1942. In 1947 they returned to England. In the beginning of the 1950s, Grace Pailthorpe set up private practice as an analyst in London and established along with Mednikoff the first art therapy school in Dorking. In the 1960s they turned to Eastern mysticism. Grace Pailthorpe died of cancer at the age of 89.

Ilse Seglow saw herself as a successor of S. H. Foulkes (Siegmund Heinrich Fuchs), whose concept of group analysis was influenced by Norbert Elias' theories. When Foulkes founded the Group Analytic Society in 1952, Ilse Seglow was one of the founding members. Group analysis meant to her not only a therapy, but also a socio-critical approach.

Since her student days at Cambridge, Karin Stephen suffered from an increasingly severe deafness and had to use an ear trumpet. In addition, an operation intended to improve her ear trouble resulted in a partial facial paralysis. Suffering from depression, she finally committed suicide.

Alix Strachey was particularly interested in the psychosocial conditions relating to war, to which belonged the behaviour of people in groups. In her book The Unconscious Motives of War she described the regressive and potentially destructive group mentality, on which institutions like public schools, the church, the army and the national sovereign state were based: The person in a group loses his super-ego and an external authority takes its place. The group induces an unrealistic state of mind, and indifference as well as outright hostility to those outside the group. Strachey believed that knowledge of the theory of psychoanalysis might moderate such destructive tendencies.

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